11.12.10

Background on Pangolins

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Bruno Nebe talks about pangolins and our project in this YouTube video interview He addressed the theme 'Is Conservation for Sale?' in a TEDx talk on Mar 27th 2015 which can be watched via this YouTube link.

Pangolins, sometimes called scaly anteaters, are very unusual animals. These toothless mammals are covered with hard overlapping scales, walk on their hind legs counterbalanced by a large tail and feed exclusively on ants and termites. The prey are dug out with their sharp claws and caught on a very long sticky tongue. (Watch this National Geographic video) The young are carried on the mother's back. Usually nocturnal, they sleep most of the day in burrows made in the ground, or take up residence in the dens of other animals such as the aardvark. When threatened, pangolins curl into a armoured ball, protected by their sharp scales. (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pangolin )
(Click on any photo to see an enlarged version) 
Eight different pangolin species can be found across Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Poaching for the illegal wildlife trade or for Chinese medicine products and their habitat loss have sadly made these creatures one of the most endangered groups of mammals in the world. In June 2010, nearly 8 tonnes of more than 2000 frozen pangolin and 2 tonnes of their scales were seized by Chinese customs officials from a boat destined for mainland China, see article in The Guardian)
(For more background on this terrible trade, see http://www.savepangolins.org/conservation and support the Save Pangolins organization on Facebook)

Being nocturnal and highly secretive, these elusive solitary mammals are thus difficult for scientists to study in the wild. Attempts to keep them in captivity invariably fail, because of their prodigious appetite for enormous numbers of live ants and termites - and their abilities as escape artists! Estimates of 70 million insects consumed per year have been made (see Bush Warriors, 19th Nov. 2010) Many mysteries therefore remain about their behaviour and habits: our ignorance hampers conservation efforts. For example, there are no detailed studies on the population levels, ecology, or life history of the Sunda pangolin, Manis javanica. Meanwhile, little is known about the current distribution and range of the various other pangolin species.
Sunda Pangolin, photo taken by Piekfrosch, May 2006 from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pangolin_borneo.jpg
Our own focus in Namibia is on the Cape Pangolin, or Temminck's ground pangolin (Taxon Manis temminckii, Smuts 1832, of the Manidae family, Pholidota order): see this excellent video plus species summary or watch this BBC video. The Cape pangolin is less threatened than the four Asian pangolin species but remains rare with decreasing numbers, because of its value in the Chinese and Traditional Medicine illegal markets, chemical insecticides and electric fences. (Its entry in the CITES RedList 2000 by the Pangolin Specialist Group allocated it the rating Lower Risk - near threatened (LR/nt - ))

Manis temminckii is one of the least studied types of pangolin, despite its widespread occurrence throughout southern and eastern Africa. For example, there are no detailed studies on the population levels in dry savannah ecologies or of the life histories of the Temminck's ground pangolin - i.e. its traits remain undocumented and basic ecology remains to be researched. One of the few people working on this species is Jonathan Swart, based in the Sabi Sand Wildtuin next to the Kruger Park, South Africa, see the Kruger Times article.

Pangolins are ancient creatures. Their ancestors are thought to have been members of the suborder Palaeanodonta, which diverged from the ancestral edentates some 60 million years ago, see the linked article. These small, armorless animals rapidly became extinct but their successors evolved into the order Pholidota. Today, this order contains one family, the Manidae, with eight living species. Four species are found in Africa and three in Southeast Asia. The widely accepted classification of the seven living pangolin species recognizes one genus (Manis) and five subgenera (Manis, Paramanis, Phataginus, Smutsia and Uromanis). The earliest fossils of the Cape Pangolin species itself date back 40 million years, see pages 112 & 113 in: The Complete book of Southern African Mammals, compiled by M. G. L. Mills & Lex Hes, Struik Publishers, Cape Town, 1997.

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  17. Why Trekking in Nepal Nepal?, a land of high hills, mountains, raging rivers and verdant deep jungles of Terai & its rich lifestyle makes one of the most sought locations inside the map of the world. a destination for all season as it's miles one of the most numerous and varied international locations on this planet a unique us of a nestled inside the excellent snow capped variety is some other advent of the mom earth and it embraces worlds' 8 highest peaks from mt.everest, mt.kanchenjonga, mt.lhotse, Makalu, Cho Oyu, Dhaulagiri, Manaslu to Annapurna massive. nepal is likewise the beginning location of Buddha (light of Asia). The Buna Treks is Local Base Under Nepal Government Trekking Agency in Nepal. blessed with wealthy nature, the brilliant Himalayan in Nepal range stretches from the far north-west to the way east where the worlds highest 8th eight-thousanders are in Nepal. nepal gives a enthralling adventure with enough time to wonder the encompassing beautiful landscapes and immerse with its warm human beings, imparting you full of range and enchantment from the low lands of Gangetic plains and its verdant dense jungle where the endangered species of Royal Bengal tigers and the one-horned rhinoceros roam, to the mythical yak and yeti trail to Everest.as the adventure and leisure tourism was hooked up in view that late 1960 and 70’s quality travel & trekking enterprise have mushroomed by using a tourism professionals Nepalese, and were leading countless of adventure trips in the course of Himalaya consisting of rafting, mountain climbing also organize adventure trekking, and entertainment trips which includes tailor-made itineraries for own family, college companies and company executives. Many of Trekking Company in Nepal are not perfect trip dealing, they have not enough Experienced. Trekking in Nepal, Nepal is domestic to community of trails also known as the amazing Himalaya trails, an extensive trail gadget that covers Nepal from humble and Darchula within the west to Kanchenjunga in the east. the range of Trekking in Nepal cannot be located in any other location of the world. in fact, the lowest factor in Nepal is fifty-nine m above sea-level inside the terai location even as the very best point is Everest, eight,848 m above sea-level, the two factors are, in a direct line, most effective two hundred kilometers aside. the majority of visitors to Nepal are available through the Tribhuvan international airport in Kathmandu. it's far in Kathmandu that trekkers want to accumulate their permits and other documentation, both from a trekking agent or from the best places of work. those files will be checked along the hiking route. for people with little time to spend in Nepal, there are half of-day hikes from Kathmandu to witness breathtaking Himalayan Trekking in Nepal perspectives in any other case trek for weeks over stunning tough mountain passes. as much as the mid-1960s just a few trekkers had generally visited Nepal and lower back then as part of corporations of excursion fans. the various huge expeditions of the day recommended trekkers to join up in an try to help balance the investment.

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  18. Manaslu Tsum Valley Trekking is freshly open trekking path in Manaslu region. Manaslu Tsum Valley trekking supply stunning Himalayan views of Mt. Manaslu 8163m, Mt. mountain peak 8167m, Mt. Annapurna8091m, twenty-three different mountain peaks, stunning landscape, Tsum Valley and mixed Nepalese culture. Manaslu Tsum Valley trek could be a sacred Everest Trekking Routes circled by the Baudha Himal and Himal Chuli to the west, Ganesh Himal to the South and Sringi Himal to the north. Tsum Valley trekking is finite by 3 high passes Ngula Dhoj Hyang (5093 m.) to the west and Yamdro Pass (5326 m). Tsum word comes from the Tibetan word 'Tsombo', which suggests vividly. Manaslu tsum natural depression trekking tour is restricted trekking in the Kingdom of Nepal and needed special trekking to allow through legal Nepal trekking agency and minimum 2 people participant obligatory trekking in Manaslu Tsum natural depression space. The smart good shape and minimum 3 we tend treks vacation needed for Tsum Valley Trekking, however, Everest Trekking Routes prepare customized trekking service as per trekkers want and vacation schedule. Fall & spring season is the best time trekking in Tsum natural depression, however, we tend to ETR prepare around the year as per trekkers vacation schedule.Manaslu Tsum Valley trekking begins at Arughat Bazaar Gorkha once 6-7 hours drive from Kathmandu. Everest Trekking Routes trekking guide LED through stunning Valley of Machhikhola, Jagat Lakpa River Dupchet and at last reach the Tsum natural depression. Tsum natural depression Trekking has completely different choices Manaslu Circuit Larke larke la pass trekking, Tsum Valley, Manaslu circuit trekking, Manaslu Rupina La pass trekking or solely Tsum natural depression trek begin from Arughat and finish at the same place. Ordinarily, inhabitation / tented trekking is additional appropriate and cozy for Manaslu Tsum Valley trekking however currently a day’s tea house/lodge trekking is worn out this space. We tend to Everest Trekking Routes prepare either tea house or inhabitation trekking as per trekkers want and need. We’ve mentioned below 3 completely different choices trekking in Manaslu tsum Valley, however, trekking itinerary style in keeping with travelers/trekker’s demand.the part of Annapurna and Ganesh Himal between Wilderness and Restricted area of Nepal.


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